There are a couple of proofs by now for the famous Cwikel--Lieb--Rozenblum (CLR) bound, which is a semiclassical bound on the number of bound states for a Schrödinger operator, proven in the 1970s. Of the rather distinct proofs by Cwikel, Lieb, and Rozenblum, the one by Lieb gives the best constant, the one by Rozenblum does not seem to yield any reasonable estimate for the constants, and Cwikel's proof is said to give a constant which is at least about 2 orders of magnitude off the truth. This situation did not change much during the last 40+ years.
It turns out that this common belief, i.e, Cwikel's approach yields bad constants, is not set in stone: We give a drastic simplification of Cwikel's original approach which leads to an astonishingly good bound for the constant in the CLR inequality. Our proof is also quite flexible and leads to rather precise bounds for a large class of Schrödinger-type operators with generalized kinetic energies. Moreover, it highlights a natural but overlooked connection of the CLR bound with bounds for maximal Fourier multipliers from harmonic analysis.

Federico Bonetto, Alissa Geisinger, Michael Loss, Tobias Ried

We consider solutions to the Kac master equation for initial conditions where \(N\) particles are in a thermal equilibrium and \(M\le N\) particles are out of equilibrium. We show that such solutions have exponential decay in entropy relative to the thermal state. More precisely, the decay is exponential in time with an explicit rate that is essentially independent on the particle number. This is in marked contrast to previous results which show that the entropy production for arbitrary initial conditions is inversely proportional to the particle number. The proof relies on Nelson's hypercontractive estimate and the geometric form of the Brascamp-Lieb inequalities due to Franck Barthe. Similar results hold for the Kac-Boltzmann equation with uniform scattering cross sections.

A nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) with dispersion averaged nonlinearity of saturated type is considered. Such a nonlocal NLS is of integro-differential type and it arises naturally in modeling fiber-optics communication systems with periodically varying dispersion profile (dispersion management). The associated constrained variational principle is shown to posses a ground state solution by constructing a convergent minimizing sequence through the application of a method similar to the classical concentration compactness principle of Lions. One of the obstacles in applying this variational approach is that a saturated nonlocal nonlinearity does not satisfy uniformly the so-called strict sub-additivity condition. This is overcome by applying a special version of Ekeland's variational principle.

Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Volumes 356–357, October 2017, pp 65-69.

A nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) with dispersion averaged nonlinearity of saturated type is considered. Such a nonlocal NLS is of integro-differential type and it arises naturally in modeling fiber-optics communication systems with periodically varying dispersion profile (dispersion management). The associated constrained variational principle is shown to posses a ground state solution by constructing a convergent minimizing sequence through the application of a method similar to the classical concentration compactness principle of Lions. One of the obstacles in applying this variational approach is that a saturated nonlocal nonlinearity does not satisfy uniformly the so-called strict sub-additivity condition. This is overcome by applying a special version of Ekeland's variational principle.

Journal of Differential Equations, Volume 265, October 2018, pp. 3311-3338.

Jean-Marie Barbaroux, Dirk Hundertmark, Tobias Ried, Semjon Vugalter

We study weak solutions of the homogeneous Boltzmann equation for Maxwellian molecules with a logarithmic singularity of the collision kernel for grazing collisions. Even though in this situation the Boltzmann operator enjoys only a very weak coercivity estimate, it still leads to strong smoothing of weak solutions in accordance to the smoothing expected by an analogy with a logarithmic heat equation.

Kinetic and Related Models, Volume 10, Number 4, December 2017, pp 901-924.

Jean-Marie Barbaroux, Dirk Hundertmark, Tobias Ried, Semjon Vugalter

It has long been suspected that the non-cutoff Boltzmann operator has similar coercivity properties as a fractional Laplacian. This has led to the hope that the homogenous Boltzmann equation enjoys similar regularity properties as the heat equation with a fractional Laplacian. In particular, the weak solution of the fully nonlinear non-cutoff homogenous Boltzmann equation with initial datum in \(L^1_2(\mathbb{R}^d)\cap L \log L(\mathbb{R}^d)\), i.e., finite mass, energy and entropy, should immediately become Gevrey regular for strictly positive times. We prove this conjecture for Maxwellian molecules.

Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, Volume 225, Issue 2, August 2017, pp 601–661.